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Carga parasitaria del ostión de placer Crassostrea corteziensis en invierno y su importancia para la producción en el Estado de Sinaloa
Oyster production in Mexico shows an increasing trend, however, even in the state of Sinaloa were a local fishery and the incipient cultivation of pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis exist and even thought environmental conditions are ideal, the production is low and unstable. In this sense, promoting its production represents an alternative to fishing communities as it is also, awell-known specie and it is appreciated by consumers. The promotion of this activity with solid bases, including sanitary aspects, in particular determining the types of parasites that can put production at risk is essential. It is known that cultivation practices increase the possibility of disease occurrence, due to densely grouping of populations in small areas and in occasions batches are freely transferred without health certification from one place to another, this greatly facilitates the spread of parasites and diseases. In the present work, the parasitic load in C. corteziensis was determined at different winter seasons in the coastal lagoons Río Fuerte (north), Las Puentes, Cospita (downtown) and Teacapán (south) situated along the state. The collection of organisms was conducted in the winter seasons from November 2011 to March 2012 and November 2012 to March 2013. In each lagoon approximately 30 oysters of commercial size were collected. Fresh analysis was performed on the soft body of the oyster, as well as histopathological analysis, to determine the parasitic load. Additionally complementary molecular analysis (PCR and in situ hybridization) were conducted to confirm the identity of Perkinsus marinus. The detected parasites were Rickettsia-like-bacteria, P. marinus, Nematopsis-like protozoans, Ancistrocoma-like protozoans, trematode cysts and copepod Pseudomyicola spinosus. The parasitic load of C. corteziensis was similar in the majority of localities studied during the two winter seasons, this indicates uniformity in the parasitic load independently of the particular characteristics of each lagoon, with the exception of the trematode cysts that were only found in the north and center of the state. Among the parasitic load, P. marinus represents the species of most interest because it is the causing agent of Perkinsosis, however, its prevalence and intensity were low possibly due to the conditions of this season which are not favorable for the development of the organism. The obtained results are also similar to reported results from other studies in the area. The identity of P. marinus was confirmed and it proved to be the same variety as the one found in the state of Nayarit, also its location in the tissues was similar. An annual or interannual surveillance of the parasitic load is recommended, that would allow the knowledge of the fluctuations throughout time in the pleasure oyster C. corteziensis
Fabiola Salcedo Morán
JORGE ABELARDO CACERES MARTINEZ
Acceso Abierto
Atribución
Crassostrea corteziensis, acuicultura, ciencias del mar
La producción ostrícola en México muestra una tendencia de crecimiento; sin embargo, aunque en el estado de Sinaloa existe una pesquería local y cultivo incipiente del ostión de placer Crassostrea corteziensis y aunque las condiciones ambientales son idóneas, su producción es baja e inestable. En este sentido, el fomento de su producción representa una alternativa de desarrollo para las comunidades pesqueras ya que además, es una especie conocida y apreciada por los consumidores. El fomento de esta actividad con bases sólidas, incluyendo los aspectos sanitarios, en particular determinar qué tipos de parásitos pueden poner en riesgo su producción es indispensable. Se sabe que las prácticas de cultivo incrementan la posibilidad de que ocurran enfermedades, ya que se agrupan densas poblaciones en áreas pequeñas y en ocasiones hay una transferencia de lotes libremente sin certificación sanitaria de un lugar a otro, esto facilita la dispersión de parásitos y enfermedades. En el presente trabajo, se determinó la carga parasitaria en C. corteziensis en diferentes temporadas invernales en las lagunas costeras Río Fuerte (zona norte), Las Puentes y Cospita (zona centro) y Teacapán (zona sur) ubicadas a lo largo del Estado de Sinaloa. La recolecta de organismos se llevó a cabo en las temporadas invernales de noviembre del 2011 a marzo del 2012 y noviembre del 2012 a marzo del 2013. En cada laguna se recolectaron aproximadamente 30 ostiones de talla comercial. Se realizó el análisis en fresco del cuerpo blando de los ostiones, así como el análisis histopatológico correspondiente para determinar la carga parasitaria. Adicionalmente, se realizaron análisis moleculares complementarios (PCR e Hibridación in situ) para la confirmación de la identidad de Perkinsus marinus. Los parásitos encontrados fueron bacterias tipo Rickettsias sp., P. marinus, protozoarios tipo Nematopsis sp., protozoarios tipo Ancistrocoma sp., quistes de trematodo y el copépodo Pseudomyicola spinosus. La carga parasitaria de C. corteziensis fue similar en la mayoría de las localidades estudiadas, durante las dos temporadas invernales, lo que nos indica una uniformidad de la misma independientemente de las características particulares de cada laguna, con excepción de los quistes de trematodo que únicamente se encontraron en el norte y centro del Estado. De entre esta carga parasitaria, P. marinus representa la especie de mayor interés por ser el agente causal de la Perkinsosis; sin embargo, sus prevalencias e intensidades fueron bajas posiblemente porque las condiciones en esta temporada no son favorables para el desarrollo del organismo. Los resultados obtenidos también son similares a los reportados en otros estudios de la zona. Se confirmó la identidad de P. marinus y resultó ser la misma variedad que la encontrada en el Estado de Nayarit y su ubicación en los tejidos fue similar. Se recomienda hacer un seguimiento anual o interanual de la carga parasitaria, que permita conocer las fluctuaciones a través del tiempo en el ostión de placer C. corteziensis
Oyster production in Mexico shows an increasing trend, however, even in the state of Sinaloa were a local fishery and the incipient cultivation of pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis exist and even thought environmental conditions are ideal, the production is low and unstable. In this sense, promoting its production represents an alternative to fishing communities as it is also, awell-known specie and it is appreciated by consumers. The promotion of this activity with solid bases, including sanitary aspects, in particular determining the types of parasites that can put production at risk is essential. It is known that cultivation practices increase the possibility of disease occurrence, due to densely grouping of populations in small areas and in occasions batches are freely transferred without health certification from one place to another, this greatly facilitates the spread of parasites and diseases. In the present work, the parasitic load in C. corteziensis was determined at different winter seasons in the coastal lagoons Río Fuerte (north), Las Puentes, Cospita (downtown) and Teacapán (south) situated along the state. The collection of organisms was conducted in the winter seasons from November 2011 to March 2012 and November 2012 to March 2013. In each lagoon approximately 30 oysters of commercial size were collected. Fresh analysis was performed on the soft body of the oyster, as well as histopathological analysis, to determine the parasitic load. Additionally complementary molecular analysis (PCR and in situ hybridization) were conducted to confirm the identity of Perkinsus marinus. The detected parasites were Rickettsia-like-bacteria, P. marinus, Nematopsis-like protozoans, Ancistrocoma-like protozoans, trematode cysts and copepod Pseudomyicola spinosus. The parasitic load of C. corteziensis was similar in the majority of localities studied during the two winter seasons, this indicates uniformity in the parasitic load independently of the particular characteristics of each lagoon, with the exception of the trematode cysts that were only found in the north and center of the state. Among the parasitic load, P. marinus represents the species of most interest because it is the causing agent of Perkinsosis, however, its prevalence and intensity were low possibly due to the conditions of this season which are not favorable for the development of the organism. The obtained results are also similar to reported results from other studies in the area. The identity of P. marinus was confirmed and it proved to be the same variety as the one found in the state of Nayarit, also its location in the tissues was similar. An annual or interannual surveillance of the parasitic load is recommended, that would allow the knowledge of the fluctuations throughout time in the pleasure oyster C. corteziensis
CICESE
2014
Tesis de maestría
Español
Salcedo Morán, F. 2014. Carga parasitaria del ostión de placer Crassostrea corteziensis en invierno y su importancia para la producción en el Estado de Sinaloa. Tesis de Maestría en Ciencias. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California. 68 pp.
CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA
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